File: HELP.EN of Tape: Original/Originals/os840-1
(Source file text) 

Type HELP <com?andname> for information on a specific command
Type HELP HELP or HELP * for more information on HELP

	HELP.HL V40A	English


ASSIGN	Assign name to device		MACHE	Same as MAKE
BASIC	Enter BASIC system		MACREL	Assemble Macrel source
BOOT	Boots to new system		MAP	Print bitmap
CANCEL	Shut down symbiont		MEMORY	Restrict memory usage
CCL	Disables CCL commands		MUNG	Execute Teco Macro
CLOSE	Removes a device from system	NAME	Same as RENAME
COMPARE	Compare source files		ODT	Run octal debugger
COMPILE	Compile file			OEFFNE	Same as OPEN
KOMPIL	German COMPILE			OPEN	Insert new device in system
COPY	Copy file			PAL	Assemble file
KOPIE	German COPY			PRINT	Print file via spooler
CREATE	Open new file for editing	Q	Queue up file to be printed
KREIERE	German CREATE			R	Run program from SYS:
CREF	Assemble and cref		RENAME	Rename file
DATE	Specify or print date		REQUEST	Start up symbiont
DEASSI	Deassign logical devices	RUN	Run program
DELETE	Delete file			SAVE	Save program image
DIRECT	Print directory			SCHLIES	Same as CLOSE
DRUCKE	Same as LIST			SENDE	Same as TALK (only Multi-8)
DUPLIC	Copy diskette			SET	Alter device characteristics
EDIT	Edit file			SPEICH	German MEMORY
EXECUTE	Compile and run			SQUISH	Compress device
FOCAL	Runs Dataplan Focal		START	Start program
FUTIL	Runs file utility program	SUBMIT	Start BATCH
GET	Get program into memory		SYSTEM	Shows system resources
GOTO	Goto $CARD in Batch stream	TALK	Send message (only Multi-8)
HELP	List help information		TEXT	Process text file
INHALT	Same as DIRECTORY		TECO	Edit file with Teco
LAUF	SUBMIT with /H and /S		TYPE	Type file
LADEN	Same as LOAD			UA,B,C	Store commands
LINK	Links Macrel binaries		UX	Show all remembrances
LIST	List file			VERDICH	Same as SQUISH
LOGIN	Login to Multi-8		VERSION	KBM and CCL Version
LOGOUT	Logout from Multi-8		ZEIGE	Same as TYPE
LOAD	Load file			ZERO	Zero device
MAKE	Make new file with TECO		@FILE	Indirect command in FILE
@Calling commands:
.LOAD BINFILE.BN,...	/from dsk:

@Switches:					Longs:
/8	prog doesn't use below 02000
/9	prog doesn't use below 12000
/G	go					/go
/I	load .SV memory image file		/image
/P	program is friendly to Batch
/R	reset internal load-map
/S	multiple binaries/file			/multiple
/n	force loading to field n
=fnnnn	set starting address
@Calling commands:
@Internal commands:
BYE	exit from BASIC
EDIT	edit a line
LIST	list current program's statements
NAME	rename current program
NEW	prepare for a new program
OLD	retrieve an old program
RUN	run current program
SAVE	save current program
SCRATCH	delete current program
SEQ	begin auto sequence mode
@Calling commands:

.BOOT/DV[.]	.= Halt after bootstrap

/CA	TA8E Cassette
/DK	Any disk
/LT	Linctape
/RE	RK8E disk
/RF	RF08,DF32 disks
/RK	RK8 disk
/RL	RL01 disk
/RX	RX8E (RX01,RX02) Floppy disk
/SI	System Industry Mod43 disk
/TC	TC08 Dectape
/TD	TD8E Dectape
/VE	Version #
/VX	VX Extended Memory device
/ZE	Zeroes Core (FIELD 0)
@Calling commands:

.COMPAR dev:OUTFILE<dev:INFILE1.PA,dev:INFILE2.PA	/out extension is .LS
.COMPAR INFILE1.PA,INFILE2.PA				/default out: is TTY: 

@Switches:					Longs:
/B	compare blank lines			/blanks
/C	don't compare (slashed) comments	/nocomments
/S	don't compare tabs and spaces		/nospaces
/T	convert tabs to spaces on output	/tabs
/X	don't compare or print comments		/noprintcomments
?0	insufficient memory
?1	input error file 1 (or less than 2 input files)
?2	input error file 2
?3	output file too large
?4	output error
?5	can't open output file

Virtual console:

Enter Virtual Console Mode by typing CONTRL/B.  The system activates
the Virtual Console if a HLT instruction is encountered or an emulation
or swap-error occurs.

Virtual Console Commands:
AC 1234		Set vitual accumulator to 1234
Boot		Bootstrap the virtual machine.
Continue	Continue execution of the virtual machine
DELAY 2,212	On output, inset 2 fillers after each 212 (Line-feed)
ESCAPE 375	On input convert 375 to escape (233)
Field 12	Set Instruction field to 1 and Datafield to 2
HOOK 5		Connect tour terminal to background # 5
Kill		Restart virtual OS/8 at 07600
LEFT 334	On output convert backspace (210) to 334 (backslash)
Pc 1234		Set the virtual program counter to 1234
Restore		Reload a copy of OS/8 on the user disk and boot
Switch 4567	Set the user's virtual switch register to 4567
Where		Display the state of the virtual machine

@Calling commands:
.CREF dev:INFILE.PA	/listing to line printer only
.CREF INFILE.PA		/listing to line printer, input file on dsk

@Switches:				Longs:
/E	don't delete CREFLS.TM
/M	mammoth ( symbols * 2 )		/mammoth
/P	no pass 1 listing		/nolist
/U	no listing or symbol table	/nosymtab
/X	no literals			/noliterals

@Calling commands:
.DIR dev:LISTFILE.DI<dev:FILETYPE		/* is wild name or extension
.DIR FILETYPE					/? is wild character

@Switches:						Longs:
/A	alphabetize directory before processing		/alphabetic
/B	include starting block numbers (octal)		/blocks
/C	list only files with the current date		/current
/D	sort files by date, then alphabetically		/date
/E	include empties in the listing			/extended
/F	fast mode (no lengths or dates)			/fast
/H	print contents of the header block
/I	print additional information words (octal)
/M	list only the empties and the file summary	/empties
/N	print dates in numeric form (mm/dd/yy)
/O	list only files with other than today's date	/other
/P	page after each listing				/page
/R	list remainder of files after the first one	/remainder
/T	print the most timely (recent) files first	/new
/U	treat each input specification separately	/ugly
/V	list files not of the form specified		/invert
/W	print the version number			/version
/X	alphabetize by extension, then by name		/extension
=n	use n columns - output is ordered by column	/...:n
@Calling commands:
.DUPLIC outdev:<indev:
@Switches:					Longs:
/D	format output double-density
/M	match with no implied copy		/nocopy
/N	copy with no implied match		/nomatch
/P	pause before and after copying floppy	/pause
/R	verify input device, list bad sectors	/readonly
/S	format output single-density
/V	print version number			/version

@Calling commands:			Internal commands:
.EDIT dev:OUTFILE.PA<dev:INFILE.PA	A	append text
.CREATE OUTFILE.PA			B	list # locations left

					C	change text
@Switches:				D	delete text
/A	return to editor on close	E	transfer rest of data,close
/B	convert spaces to tab		F	after j,resume search
/D	predelete			G	get and list tagged line
 					I	insert text 
@Errors:					J	inter-buffer search
?0	input error			K	kill buffer
?1	output error			L	list text
?2	close error			M	move text
?3	open error			N	write text,read next page
?4	couldn't load handler		P	write buffer to output
					Q	immediate end of file
@Immediate commands:			R	read from input device
^G,^L	Return to command mode		S	character search
LF,>	Print next line			V	list on line printer
<	Print last line			Y	input page,no output
:,=	Prints line number
#	Print version number		Internal commands may be lower case

	OS/8 File UTILity V40A

.Futil [dev:][file[.ex]] [/E][<mode switch>] 

only  the  first  character  of  the command must be given.
"/E" sets 'SHORT ERROR' mode and <mode switch> can be one of the following:  

	/L	set: access mode to LOAD, default .ex to .LD only
	/O=oooo	set: access mode to OFFSET, offset to "oooo"
	/S	set: access mode to SAVE, default .ex to .SV only

SINGLE-CHARACTER commands:	([<item>] = optional <item>)

Output in octal or octal & "symbolic" (PDP or FPP):

<l>/	/	[<n>]"LINE-FEED"	[<n>]!	[<n>]^	[<n>]_
<l>+	<l>-

Output in a specified format:

[<N>]#		BCD
[<n>]$		OS/8 ascii
[<n>]:		SIGNED decimal
[<n>]%		BYTE octal
[<n>]&		XS237 format packed ascii
[<n>]<		OCTAL
[<n>]=		UNSIGNED decimal
[<n>]>		PDP "symbolic"
[<n>]@		DATE format (extended, in alpha-numeric)
[<n>][		ASCII
[<n>]\		FPP "symbolic"
[<n>]]		PACKED ascii
[<n>]$ (ESC)	As 'SET' by last 'FORMAT' option

No output:	[<N>]"RETURN"   [<n>];

WORD-TYPE commands:  (And modifiers, many of which are optional)


DUMP	[<format>] <block string>	([<format>]s above)
LIST	[<format>] <location string>	([<format>]s above)
MODIFY	[<format>] <location string>	([<format>]s below)

WORD	<option(s)> <n>
STRING	<option(s)> <number string>
SMASK	<number string>		e.g. 1,34,0,7700,0,(-1),377

SET	<option>	<setting>
	FORMAT		<format>
	OFFSET		<l>
	LOWER		<l>
	UPPER		<l>
	DEVICE		<device name[:]>
	DDEV		<device name[:]>
	MASK		<n>
	FILLER		<n>
	TEMP		<n - 24-bit>

SHOW	<option(s)>

FILE	<file name(s)>	default = .SV, .LD, null
WRITE	[<block>]
OPEN	<file name>	default = .DU
SCAN	<block string>
IF	<expression>
COMMENT	[<comment>]

EVAL	<expression>	e.g. (1!(S+^D17))*^K15+(C&7600)
	!  &  +  -  *  /  (  )  C  L  B  F  T  S  R  D

Numeric input:

^D  ^K	<digits>	"<1 character>	'<2 characters>

Control characters:

^P  ^C  ^U  ^R  RUBOUT  ^Q  ^S
	F4.SV		.HELP F4ERR	prints FORTRAN error messages

@Calling commands:
/N	suppress internal statement numbers
/Q	optimize
					MK	misspelled keyword
AA	too many args are arrays	ML	multiply defined line numbers
AS	bad ASSIGN statement		MM	mismatched parenthesis
BD	bad dimensions			MO	expected operand missing
BS	bad statement in BLOCK DATA	MT	mixed variable types
CL	bad complex literal		OF	error writing output file
CO	syntax error in COMMON		OP	illegal operator
DA	bad syntax in DATA statement	OT	wrong operand type
DE	illegal statement at end of DO	PD	compiler stack overflow
DF	bad DEFINE FILE statement	PH	bad program header line
DH	hollerith field error		QL	nesting error in equivalence
DL	wrong data/variable list length	QS	syntax error in EQUIVALENCE
DN	DO-END missing			RD	redefining variable dimensions
DO	syntax error in do		RT	redefining variable type
DP	bad do loop parameter		RW	syntax error in read/write
EX	syntax error in EXTERNAL	SF	bad arithmetic function
GT	syntax error in GOTO		SN	illegal name in call
GV	variable not INTEGER or REAL	SS	subscript expression error
HO	hollerith field error		ST	symbol table full
IE	error reading input file	SY	system error
IF	improper statement		TD	bad syntax in type declaration
LI	bad arg to logical IF		US	undefined statement number
LT	input line too long		VE	version error

@Calling commands:
/C	more input to load
/G	chain to run-time system
/L	accept library file
/S	symbol map

New CCL commands:
OPEN DSKn:	Make DSKn: available for read access
OPEN DSKn:/W	Make DSKn: available for read and write access
CLOSE DSKn:	Remove DSKn:
CLOSE [ALL]	Remove all open DSKn:'s, except DSK0:
TALK n xxxxx	Send the text xxxxx to terminal n
LOGOUT		End a terminal session.

Virtual Console Commands:
AC 1234		Set vitual accumulator to 1234
Boot		Bootstrap the virtual machine.
Continue	Continue execution of the virtual machine
DELAY 2,212	On output, inset 2 fillers after each 212 (Line-feed)
ESCAPE 375	On input convert 375 to escape (233)
Field 12	Set Instruction field to 1 and Datafield to 2
HOOK 5		Connect tour terminal to background # 5
Kill		Restart virtual OS/8 at 07600
LEFT 334	On output convert backspace (210) to 334 (backslash)
Pc 1234		Set the virtual program counter to 1234
Restore		Reload a copy of OS/8 on the user disk and boot
Switch 4567	Set the user's virtual switch register to 4567
Where		Display the state of the virtual machine
@Calling commands:
/N	forces mapping of all files to field n (0-7)
/R	reset internal map
/S	allow multiple binaries per file
/T	invert TTY-style output switch
	OCOMP.SV  -  Compare & Dump Files under a mask

*out:LIST.LS<dev1:FILE1,dev2:FILE2 [=mask]
  ^       ^   ^          ^
 tty:	 .LS dsk:	dsk:	are the defaults

COMPARE:	Two input files are compared under a mask [default=7777]
DUMP:		Dump all words of 1 file with no mask bits off [ " ]
SEARCH:		Dump all words of 1 file equal to mask [option/s]


/I    IMAGE MODE:	Input file is core image .SV file
			Addressing is by memory address
			Default extension is .SV
/C    CCB OUTPUT:	CCB is printed as part of the title
			Must also have /I
/D    DIFFERENCE MODE:	Only message is 'SAME' or 'DIFFERENT'
/F    FORM FEED:	All printed blocks have preceeding FF
/T    TELETYPE:		72 column narrow output
/H    HEADER:		Always print header line

Errors are signaled by "USER ERROR X" messages

  1	More than two input files
  2	Output file is too small
  3	Output handler FETCH or ENTER failed
  4	Input handler FETCH or ENTER failed
  5	Input file #1 error
  6	Input file #2 error
  7	Output file error
  8	Output file CLOSE failed
  9	CCB decode error
@Calling commands:
@Internal commands:
ffnnnn/	open loc nnnn in field ff	  nnnn+ open current loc+nnnn
      /	reopen last opened loc		  nnnn- open current loc-nnnn
   nnnn	deposit nnnn in open loc	ffnnnnG	go to loc nnnn in field ff
   <cr>	close previously opened loc	ffnnnnB	establish breakpoint
   <lf>	close loc, open next loc	      B	remove breakpoint
      ^	close,open loc addressed	      A	open AC
      _	close,open loc pointed to	      L	open link
  M	open search mask		      C	continue from breakpoint
   <lf>	open lower search limit		  nnnnC	continue nnnn times
   <lf>	open upper search limit		D ff/xx	open data field and modify
  nnnnW	search for nnnn in limits	F ff/xx	open field for ^,_, W
     ^O	suppress printing		     ff is field from 0-37
 Delete Cancel entered number			** Good luck **
	PAL8.SV	V40	.HELP PALERR	prints PAL8 error messages

@Calling commands:

@Switches:					Longs:
/B	treat ! as byte shift			/shift
/C	chain to CREF					:CREF command
/D	DDT compatible symbol table		/ddt
/E	enable error msg on link generated	/nolinks
/F	disable 0-fill in TEXT			/nofill
/G	go					/go
/H	non-paginated output			/nonpaginated
/J	don't list lines conditionalized out	/nonconditionals
/K	use extra memory
/L	load					/load
/N	no listing				/nolist
/O	disable origin 200			/noorig
/S	no symbol table				/nosymtab
/T	no form feeds
/W	don't remember literals			/noremember
/7	lineprinter wide symbol table		/wide

BE	tables overlapped
DE	device error
DF	device full
IC	illegal character
ID	illegal redefinition
IE	illegal equals
II	illegal indirect
IP	illegal pseudo-op
IZ	illegal page zero ref
LD	SYS:ABSLDR.SV not found
LG	link generated
PE	page exceeded
PH	end of source conditionalized out
RD	redefinition
SE	symbol table exceeded
UO	undefined origin
US	undefined symbol
ZE	page 0 exceeded
	PIP.SV    V40A

/A	ASCII mode
/B	Binary mode
/C	eliminate trailing blanks
/D	delete output file before transfer
/E	extended directory listing
/F	fast directory listing (no dates)
/G	ignore errors
/I	image mode
/L	list directory
/N	numeric (MM/DD/YY) dates (/E or /L)
/O	okay to compress or zero
/S	squish
/T	convert tabs to spaces etc.
/V	version number
/Y	copy system head
/Z	zero output directory before transfer
=N	# of additional info words (/Z or /S)
=N	size to close output file (/I)
	QUEUE command


	.Q filename,...

@Switches:					Longs:

/D	deletes file in queue			/delete
/K	stop all printing			/kill
/L	lists files already in queue		/list
/C=n	queues up n (octal) copies		/copies:n
/G	starts printing again			/go
/N	no header block				/noh
/S	stops printer for a moment		/stop
/2	2 pages of header block
@Calling commands:
.SET dev parameter(s)		or:	.R SET
.SET dev NO parameter(s)		#SET dev parameter
					#$	($ returns to monitor) 
ARROW		display control characters with up arrow (e.g. ^C, ^S)
ASSIGN		set sys ass dev userdev (sets user name in bootstrap)
BLOCK		set dev block [n], location [m] (modify handler)
CODE N		change tty:, lpt: IOTS or card reader codes
COL N		set DIRECT to use n columns (.SET TTY COL 2)
DEASSIGN	set sys deassign (removes user names from bootstrap)
DVCODE		change device codes (dangerous!)
ECHO		restore TTY character echoing
ESCAPE		display ESC(ASCII 033) without converting it to $
FILES		declare device to be file-structured
FILL		on lineprinter: simulate FF page-ejects
HEIGHT [M]	set TTY screen height or LPT page height (FF simulation)
INIT xxxxx	cause SYS to execute xxxxx on bootstrapping
LA8A		declare LPT to be LP08 or LS8E
LA78		declare LPT to be LA180 or PRINTRONIX on DKC8-AA
LC		declare line printer or TTY to have lower case
LOCATION N [=M]	examine or change locations in handler
LV8E		lineprinter to have an LV8E form-feed
LX180		declare LPT to be Logabax printer
NO PAUSE	enable TTY form-feed delay
PAGE		restore TTY ^S, ^Q facilities. On LPT enable form-feed
PAUSE		enable delay for asynchronous lineprinters
PAUSE [N]	set TTY pause time
READONLY	declare device to be read only
SCOPE		erase character on TTY deletes
SLU2/SLU3	lineprinter on asynchronous outputs of VT78
TAB		in TTY print tabs (don't simulate with spaces)
TAB [N]		set lineprinter tab size (any size .gt. 1)
VERSION X	change handler version number
WIDTH N		set width of line printer or TTY
@Calling commands:
.SUBMIT spooldev:<inputdev:FILE.BI
@Switches:					Longs:
/C	Batch from cards			/cards
/E	don't abort on errors			/nonfatal
/Q	no BATCH log				/quiet
/H	hush					/hush
/I	Batch from TTY: (for testing)
/L	Force Batch Log to LPT:			/printer
/P	Batch from paper tape			/papertape
/S	Enable Subroutine mode			/subroutine
/U	unattended				/unattended
/V	BATCH Version				/version
/6	Use 026 Card codes (only if /C)		/026

@Control Cards:

$JOB	Starts new Batch JOB (full page on LPT:)
$MSG	Message to terminal and wait for operator
$END	Ends current JOB. Returns from subroutine or quit
$ERR	If Batch error Status on, start, if off, stop executing
$EXIT	Stop executing and scan for other $ cards. Does not end JOB
$RESUME	Reenable execution. (after $ERR or $EXIT)
$SKIP	Skip next command if error Status off
	Execute next command if error Status on. Turn error off

.GO xy	CCL command: Goto Card $xy (backward or forward)

	If the /S option was used to start Batch, the
	behaviour of Batch upon issuance of .SU in a
	Batch stream is different. This SU command will
	create a new Batch stream which will execute till
	it finds a $END. At that moment the old Batch
	stream will be started at the instruction following
	the SU that started the subroutine.

	The Error status is turned on automatically by some
	CUSPS. If a user program wants to turn it on, it can
	do so by writing to the new BAT: handler (Version M).

.TECO dev:OUTFILE<dev:INFILE		/Assumes .PA extension
.TECO FILE.MA				/Edit Backup FILE.MA
.MAKE dev:OUTFILE			/Makes new file on dev:
.MAKE OUTFILE				/The same but on dsk:
.MUNG dev:INFILE,Macro argument text	/Executes Macro INFILE
@Internal Commands: (Novice Subset)

  J Moves pointer to start of buffer	  K Deletes text from pointer to EOL
 ZJ Moves pointer to end of buffer	 nK Deletes n lines of text
  L Pointer to start of next line	 HK Deletes all of text buffer
 nL Advances pointer n lines		  D Deletes 1 character after pointer
-nL Moves pointer back n lines		 nD Deletes n characters after pointer
 0L Moves pointer to start of line	-nD Deletes n characters before   "
  C Moves pointer across 1 character	  P Writes page, read in next
 nC Moves pointer across n characters	 nP Executes P command n times
-nC Moves pointer back n characters	  A Appends next input page to buffer
  T Types text from pointer to EOL	 EX Copy all, end file and exit
 nT Types n lines of text on terminal	Stext$
 HT Types all of text buffer on TTY	    Searches for 'text' on current
0TT Types current line			    page. If found set pointer after
  V Alternate form of 0TT.		    found 'text' string.
Ntext$					FStext1$text2$
    Same as Stext$, but searches	    Searches for 'text1', if found
    across page boundaries.		    replace with 'text2'
@Calling commands:

.COPY dev:OUTFILE.EX<dev:INFILE.EX	/* is wild name or extension
.REN dev:NEWFILE.EX<dev:OLDFILE.EX	/? is wild character
@Switches:					Longs:
/C	match only files with current date	/current
/F	request new device if out of room	/failsafe
/L	type log of input filename matches		:always with CCL
/N	no pre-delete				/nopredelete
/O	match only files without today's date	/other
/Q	query user about file before operation	/query
/T	use today's date			/today
/U	treat each input spec. separately	/ugly
/V	match files not of form specified	/invert
/W	print version #
@Calling commands:
.ASSIGN DEV NAME		/assign name to device
.CANCEL				/stop symbiont mode, resume 16k OS/78
.CLOSE DSKn:			/Multi-8: Remove DSKn:
.CLOSE [ALL]			/Multi-8: Remove all open DSKn:'s (not DSK0:)
.DATE DD-MON-YY[$]		/enter date into system [and print]
.DEASSIGN			/deassign logical device names
.GET dev FILE.EX		/load memory image
.GOTO				/Goto $CARD in Batch stream
.LOGOUT				/Multi-8: End a terminal session.
.MEMORY ff			/sets highest field ff to be used and prints
.OPEN DSKn:			/Multi-8: make DSKn: available for read access
.OPEN DSKn:/W			/Multi-8: the same, but also write access
.R FILE				/execute FILE.SV from SYS
.REQUEST FILE.SM		/request FILE.SM run in symbiont mode
.RUN dev FILE.EX		/execute FILE.EX from the device
.SAVE dev FILE.EX		/save memory image
.SQUISH dev:			/compress file storage on device
.START fnnnn			/start execution
.TALK n xxxxx			/Multi-8: Send the text xxxxx to terminal n
.UA,UB,UC commands		/save command(.UA<cr> executes it)
.UX command			/prints all remembrances COM,LO,ED,FO classes
.ZERO dev:			/zero device's directory